However, these methods are costly and require a high level of management, organisation and specialist expertise. Great variation in strains, ranging from a chronic wasting disease which may  Trypansomes and trypanosomiasis Symptoms of nagana in cattle An infected ox becomes progressively thinner. The incubation period ranges from 4 days to approximately 8 weeks. Prophylactic drugs for cattle include homidium chloride, homidium bromide and isometamidium. loss of appetite, body condition and productivity, emaciation and eventual death in chronic forms often after digestive and/or nervous Infections in cattle and pigs, disease is mild and self-cure is usual. It is caused by Flagellated protozoan parasites that live in the fluids and tissue of its host animal. Cattle, sheep, goats and, rarely, horses. The various species of trypanosome produce various ill effects in different species of livestock, but they are all collectively referred to as trypanosomiasis. Horses, dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep and goats. Managing disease can be a frustrating proposition. The end of the period of parasite destruction is the crisis, when antibodies are being produced and large quantities of trypanosome protein are liberated into the bloodstream. In areas where reinfection is frequent, death will commonly occur within one to three months, unless the animal is treated with a trypanocide. Progressive anaemia, weight loss and weakness. An infected ox becomes progressively thinner. Severity of disease varies with species and age of the animal infected and the species of trypanosome involved. Therapeutic drugs for cattle include diminazene aceturate, homidium chloride and homidium bromide. The major clinical signs are: intermittent fever anaemia oedema lacrimation enlarged lymph nodes abortion decreased fertility loss of appetite, body condition and productivity early death in acute forms emaciation and eventual death in chronic forms often after digestive and/or nervous signs Infections in cattle and pigs, disease is mild and self-cure is usual. signs. Assessing the general feasibility of a tsetse control operation. The animal becomes listless, it lags behind the herd, loses interest in its surroundings, its ears and tail hang limply and it ceases to react to biting insects. What are the symptoms of animal trypanosomiasis? Pembroke Place This condition is more typical of T. vivax infections, which may also produce visible swellings of the superficial lymph nodes. The widespread nature of the disease is due to the distribution of tsetse, the ability of the trypanosomes to escape host defense mechanisms by undergoing antigenic variation and by their capacity to infect a large variety of other hosts, including wild game. Pigs are least affected. Often the disease is transmitted through the bite of an infected tsetse fly which has been feeding on an infected animal. There may be discharge from the eyes, varying between a copious weeping with photophobia (avoidance of light by closing the eyes) to a slight but definite crusting of the discharge at the inner corner of the eyelids. The infection leads to significant weight loss and anemia. The most common of the procedures that have been deveoped are: spraying insecticide on tsetse habitat, destruction of tsetse habitat and alteration of vegetation so that it becomes unsuitable for tsetse flies. The incubation period is usually 1–4 wk. Symptoms Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine Mainly occuring in Africa, Trypanosomosis, or Sleeping Disease, is a infection affecting both animals and humans. The general patterns are shown in the table below. Trypanosomiasis in cattle results in poor productivity and mortality. If detected early, Trypanosomosis can be treated with trypanocidal drugs for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes. not actually result in death to an acute infection leading to death in about ten days. Mixed infections may occur, with corresponding variations in clinical disease. The disease can sometimes be acute. rhodesiense , of which domestic and wild animals are an important reservoir. However the effectiveness of these drugs is now questionable following years of use, causing resistence and now variuos strains of Trypanosomosis to occur.