[51] A study testing the flight physics of an "ideal falcon" found a theoretical speed limit at 400 km/h (250 mph) for low-altitude flight and 625 km/h (388 mph) for high-altitude flight. This size range, evolved to fit various environments and prey species, is from the larger females of the largest subspecies to the smaller males of the smallest subspecies, approximately five to one (approximately 1500 g to 300 g). Wild peregrine falcons regard humans with fear and loathing. [62] Smaller hawks and owls are regularly predated, mainly smaller falcons such as the American kestrel, merlin and sharp-shinned hawks. Peregrine falcons eat birds almost exclusively. [93], Since Peregrine eggs and chicks are still often targeted by illegal poachers,[94] it is common practice not to publicize unprotected nest locations. 0 1 2. [58], The peregrine falcon feeds almost exclusively on medium-sized birds such as pigeons and doves, waterfowl, songbirds, and waders. South-facing sites are favoured. Be the first to answer! Many of these nesting birds are encouraged, sometimes gathering media attention and often monitored by cameras. No nest materials are added. [16] The white to rusty underparts are barred with thin clean bands of dark brown or black. A large, crow-sized falcon, it has a blue-grey back, barred white underparts, and a black head. Thank you Kate. No other peregrines are allowed in the territory, not even their own offspring. Young peregrine falcons typically fledge between 40 and 44 days of age. Their name comes from the Latin word peregrinus, which means "to wander." The females of the larger subspecies are capable of taking large and powerful game birds such as the largest of duck species, pheasant, and grouse. [50] To protect their eyes, the falcons use their nictitating membranes (third eyelids) to spread tears and clear debris from their eyes while maintaining vision. [21], The peregrine falcon hunts most often at dawn and dusk, when prey are most active, but also nocturnally in cities, particularly during migration periods when hunting at night may become prevalent. [60][61] The peregrine falcon takes the most diverse range of bird species of any raptor in North America, with more than 300 species having fallen victim to the falcon, including nearly 100 shorebirds. [69] Although previously thought rare, several cases of peregrines contour-hunting, i.e. [12] The tail, coloured like the back but with thin clean bars, is long, narrow, and rounded at the end with a black tip and a white band at the very end. Links to webcams and video sequences. [73] The distance between nests ensures sufficient food supply for pairs and their chicks. [84] They were also used to intercept homing pigeons during World War II.[85]. Mammal Review. [20] The cere is yellow, as are the feet, and the beak and claws are black. Being captured by a human is not a happy time for a peregrine. Worcester Peregrine Falcon Project, UK. Chicks fledge 40 to 45 days after hatching, and remain dependent on their parents for up to 3 months. [16] The male passes prey it has caught to the female in mid-air. [96][97] In Canada, where peregrines were identified as endangered in 1978 (in the Yukon territory of northern Canada that year, only a single breeding pair was identified[98]), the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada declared the species no longer at risk in December 2017. The extra care she showed him allowed him to recover properly, and his “screams” are still vivid in my mind, as he also hung around through the summer and she stayed near and even showed him her alternate hunting ground of the church steeple in Lawrenceville. Male Peregrine Falcons weigh as little as 450 grams; females weigh as much as 1,500 grams. [101] In many parts of the world peregrine falcons have adapted to urban habitats, nesting on cathedrals, skyscraper window ledges, tower blocks,[102] and the towers of suspension bridges. Due to the extirpation of the eastern anatum (Falco peregrinus anatum), the near extirpation of the anatum in the Midwest, and the limited gene pool within North American breeding stock, the inclusion of non-native subspecies was justified to optimize the genetic diversity found within the species as a whole. Endangered Species list on 25 August 1999. The peregrine is renowned for its speed, reaching over 320 km/h (200 mph) during its characteristic hunting stoop (high-speed dive), making it the fastest bird in the world, as well as the fastest member of the animal kingdom. [20] In the Brazilian mangrove swamp of Cubatão, a wintering falcon of the subspecies tundrius was observed while successfully hunting a juvenile scarlet ibis.